Tribes of Tripura
The tribes of Tripura form a major population of the state. Most of the members of the tribes are from Tibeto-Burma origin. There are 19 different tribes residing in Tripura. Every tribe has their
own culture, tradition and festivals which are again unique to them.
Here is a mention of some of the important tribes residing in Tripura.
Tipuri is the oldest tribe living in Tripura. They constitute 50 % of the total population of Tripura. Agriculture is the main occupation among the tribe. According to 2001 Census they are 5, 43,843 in number in the State and form highest in number among all the tribal groups of Tripura.
They practice the Jhum or shifting cultivation.They generally make their home on the slopes of hilly terrains. The women wear hand-made breast attires known as Risa. They also wear Pachra. The festivals of the Tripuri tribe is generally related to the cultivation process. Lebang Boomani is the popular folk dance of the tribe.
The Chakma tribe also known as Changma is the most important tribe of Tripura. It is the largest ethnic group in Chittagong hill tracts. As per 2001 census, Chakma population in Tripura is 61,793.
The word Chakma means beholder of power. This tribe is divided into 46 clans and three major groups namely, Anokia, Tandugia and Mangla. Animal husbandry, basketry, horticulture, foraging, fishing and weaving are the subsidiary occupations of the tribe. Chakmas are Buddhist by religion and their form of Buddhism has aspects of Hinduism. Their language is related to Bengali, belongs to Tibeto-Burman family. The Chakmas have their own culture, folklore, literature and tradition. Bizu and Buddha Purnima are the main festivals of Chakmas.
The Riang or Reang is a scheduled tribe and the second most populous tribe in Tripura. According to 2001 census, about 165,103 Riang people inhabit Tripura. Meska and Molsoi are the two major groups of the tribe. The Meska group is divided into seven sub-groups and the Molsoi group divided into six sub-groups. They practice the Jhum or shifting cultivation. Rnai is the traditional attire of a Riang woman. They celebrate festivals like Ker, Gonga mwtai, Goria, Katangi Puja, Lakshmi Puja and some others. Bihu is the most famous festival among the tribe.
The Jamatia is the third largest sub-tribe among the indigenous Tripuris. Jamatias are follower of traditional Tripuri religion and they worship Goria Mutai. They speak Korbok language, which is belongs to Tibeto-Burmese origin. They are agriculturist in occupation. The Jamatia Hoda is a very strong social body among the tribe.
The Murasingh tribe inhabits in Tripura. They are mostly agriculturists. In old days they practiced the shifting cultivation. Most of the Murasinghs are follower of Vaishnabism. Sikla Montha is an association of Murasingh youth formed by the founder father of the tribe Harichand.
Mog tribe resides in southern part of Tripura along with Mizoram and Bangladesh. As per 2001 Census there are 30,385 Mogs. They are claimed to have originated from Arakan, Burmese and Chinese clan. The tribe has their own language and they follow Buddhism. The tribe has two endogenous divisions. Agriculture is the main occupation among the tribe.
The Halam tribe also known as Mizo is a tribe in Tripura. They are divided into 15 sub-divisions. A large number of Halam peoples are Hinduism, besides few peoples practice Christianity. Ethnically Halams belong to the Cocase-Mongoloid origin of Kuki-Chin tribes and their language is similar to that of Tibeto-Burman family.They have typical houses built of bamboos and Chan grass called 'Tong Ghar'.
The Darlong community is settled in the Kailashahar sub division in North Tripura. They are also known as Kukis. The means of livelihood is cultivation of pineapple, orange and cotton. They also practise Jhum cultivation and are fond of music.