Profile of Tripura
Tripura is one of the ‘Seven Sisters’ states of Northeast India. It is bordered by the country of Bangladesh on its north, west, south and south eastern side whereas the states of Assam and Mizoram are located in the east and shares a common boundary with Tripura. Tripura shares an international border of 856 kms with Bangladesh. The capital of the state is Agartala. Tripura was given the status of a separate state of the Indian Union on 21st, January 1972.
Tripura is a landlocked hilly state covering an area of 10, 491 sq kms. It is the third smallest state of India on basis of its total area. It is accessible to the rest of India through the Cachar district of Assam and Aizawl
district of Mizoram
in the east.
The economy of the state is dependent on agriculture and allied activities which provide employment to about 64% of the population. Rice is the principal crop grown followed by oilseed, pulses, potato and sugarcane.
The different people living in Tripura form a beautifully colourful society which again contributes to the rich cultural heritage of Tripura. The society of Tripura portrays very rich culture and tradition distinct to them. The people of Tripura have their own festivals and fairs. The people are very fond of traditional food. They are known for their handicraft and handloom works.
History of Tripura
Tripura has a long history of kings ruling the state. It was a princely state and the history has a unique culture and folklore associated with it. Tripura was earlier known as Kirat Desh. The Indian epic Mahabharata mentions Tripura as the three cities constructed by Asura artificer Maya. The Puranas and the pillar inscriptions of Emperor Ashoka also mention about the state of Tripura.
There is a long list of tribal kings ruling Tripura for times. According to versions presented in different editions
of ‘Rajmala’ Tripura’s court chronicle, there were altogether 184 or 179 kings of Manikya dynasty who ruled the state. These Tripuri kings who held the Manikya title ruled Tripura for about 3000 years until its merge with India. Udaipur located in South Tripura was the capital of the kingdom. The capital was then shifted to Old Agartala by King Krishna Manikya in the 18th century and then to the present Agartala in the 19th century.
The history of Tripura as an administrative unit dates back to the days of Maharajas when the territory was a native State. The State of Tripura was a princely state, and Maharaja Birbikram Kishore Manikya Bahadur was the last king of the state. The nineteenth century marked the beginning of the modern era of Tripura, when King Bir Chandra Manikya Bahadur Debbarma designed his administration on the lines of British India and enacted various reforms. In 1947, after the death of Maharaja Birbikram Kishore Manikya Bahadur, the administration was taken over by his widowed wife Maharani Kanchan Prabha Devi on behalf of minor prince Kirit Bikram.
Tripura was heavily affected by the partition of India when many refugees, mainly Bengalis from East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) came to India during that time. Armed conflict has always been a problem since 1970 and after the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971. The mass migration of Bengalis from Bangladesh during Indian Independence and the war resulted in widespread insurgency and militancy with state groups like Tripura National Volunteers, National Liberation Front of Tripura and All Tripura Tiger Force aiming to drive away the Bengali population. This is the Tripura Rebellion.
Tripura Chronological History:
- Tripura was conquered by force of arms in 1761 and no political agent was appointed in the State till 1871, for a gap of 110 years.
- The monarchy came to an end on 9th Sept, 1947 and Tripura was merged with the Indian Union as a part 'C' State, administered by the Chief Commissioner. The Ganamukti Parishad movement led to the merging of Tripura with India as signed by the Regent Maharani on 9th September 1947.
- The partition of India in 1947 and the political upheavals that followed brought an end to the princely rule of Manikya dynasty in Tripura.
- The state administration was taken over by the Indian Government on October 15, 1949 within Assam state.
- Tripura became a Union Territory with effect from 1st November, 1956.
- A popularly elected ministry was formed on 1st July, 1963.
- Tripura attained full statehood on 21st January 1972.
Geography of Tripura
Tripura, one of the ‘Seven Sisters’ states of Northeast India, is bordered by the country of Bangladesh on its north, west, south and south eastern side whereas the states of Assam and Mizoram are located in the east and shares a common boundary with Tripura. Tripura shares an international border of 856 kms with Bangladesh. The capital of the state is Agartala
Tripura is a landlocked hilly state covering an area of 10, 491 sq kms. The maximum stretch measures about 184 kms from north to south and 113 kms from east to west. The altitudes of the state vary from 15 to 950
meters above sea level. The terrain is hilly with plains in some places. It is the third smallest state of India on basis of its total area. The state extends between 22° 56' N & 24° 32' N and 90° 09' E & 92° 10' E.
The altitudes of the state vary from 15 to 950 meters above sea level. The Manu River which flows through the state originates here. The terrain is hilly with plains in some places. It is accessible to the rest of India through the Cachar district of Assam and Aizawl district of Mizoram in the east.
Climate of Tripura
Facts of Tripura
Year of formation: 21-01-1972
Latitude: 22’ 56’ & 24’ 32’N
Longitude: 91’ 09’ & 92’ 20’
Altitude: 12.80 Mtr
Population: 3,191,168 (21st),
Population Density: 304/km² (787/sq mi)
Temperature: 10 to 35 Degree Celsius,
Average Annual Rain Fall: 2100mm,
Forest cover: 52.76%
Literacy: 60.44% (S.T. 40.37%)
Language(s): Bengali, Kokborok/Tripuri
Tripura is one of the ‘Seven Sisters’ states of Northeast India. The state of Tripura is bordered by the country of Bangladesh on its north, west, south and south eastern side whereas the states of Assam and Mizoram are located in the east and shares a common boundary with Tripura. It shares an international border of 856 kms with Bangladesh. Tripura is situated 60 km to the north of the Bay of Bengal, the sea influences the climate.
The climate of Tripura is pleasant and temperature is comfortable. Tripura has a humid sub-tropical type of climate. The longest season of Tripura is the monsoon which stretches from the month of May to September, receiving the maximum rainfall in the month of June. Kamalpur receives the maximum rainfall of 2855 mm while Sonamura receives the lowest of 1811 mm. Humidity is generally high throughout the year. In summer the relative
humidity is between 50% to 74 % and in the rainy season it is about
Economy of Tripura
Agriculture and allied activities are the major occupation of the people of Tripura providing employment to about 64% of the population. Rice is the principal crop grown followed by oilseed, pulses, potato and sugarcane.
The economy of Tripura is primarily agrarian. Agriculture contributes about 64% of total employment in the state and about 48% of the State Domestic Product (SDP).
A variety of Horticultural/ Plantation Crops are produced in Tripura like Pineapple, Oranges, Cashewnut, Jackfruit, Coconut, Tea, Rubber, Forest , Plantations, among others. There is ample scope for increasing the area under such plantations as well as the productivity.
The important cash crops of India are tea and rubber. Tripura is the Second Rubber Capital of India after Kerala as declared by the Indian Rubber Board.
Industries in Tripura
The Industrial Sector has remained to be undeveloped so far, despite the vast potential of the state. The secondary sector contributes only about 5% of total employment and about 7% of the total income (SDP) of the state at present. Tourism has been declared as an Industry in the state since 1987.
Small scale industries in Tripura
The people here are also engaged cottage and small scale industries. Handicrafts, wood and bamboo products also help in bringing about the income of the state. Handicraft is emerging as a potential industry in Tripura. The Handloom Industry also plays an important role in rural Industry of Tripura.
Culture of Tripura
Tripura has 19 different tribal communities residing here. Tripuri is the oldest tribe living in Tripura. They constitute 50 % of the total population of Tripura. The other tribes in Tripura include the Chakma tribe also known as Changma, Riang or Reang, Jamatia, Murasingh tribe, Mog tribe, Halam and Darlong among others. Along with the tribes, Bengali and Manipuri communities also are the major dwellers of Tripura. The different people living in Tripura form a beautifully colourful society which again contributes to the rich cultural heritage of Tripura. The society of Tripura hence is a mixture of culture and tradition that these communities follow.
Festivals in Tripura
The people of Tripura have their own festivals and fairs. The tribal society of Tripura celebrates different festivals round the year. Festivals like Buisu or Bisu, Garia and Gajan Festival, Hojagiri, Kharchi festival, Ker festival are celebrated by the people of Tripura. In accordance with that the other non tribal communities celebrate festivals like Durga puja, Diwali, Holi and many others with much gaiety.
Music and Dance in Tripura
The society of Tripura portrays an essence of rich culture and
tradition. In Tripura dwell many tribal people. Each tribe of the state
has its own cultural activities. They have their distinct dance and
music. The dance and music of the tribes of Tripura are mainly folk in
nature. In the society of Tripura folk songs and dance are performed in
occasions like weddings, religious occasion and other festivals. The
folk songs are accompanied by musical instruments like Sarinda,
Chongpreng and Sumai. Folk songs and dance are performed in occasions
like weddings, religious occasion and other festivals.
Food in Tripura
The society of Tripura is very fond of traditional food. The food of the people includes rice, dal, meat, fish, vegetable and chutney. One of the most important aspects of the food of Tripura is that the food is made mainly without oil and the use of herbs is considerably much.
Handicrafts in Tripura
Tripura is known for their handicraft and handloom work. They are very skilled craftsmen. There are several small scale cottage industries and most of the people are engaged in different types of handloom and handicraft making. The handicraft items made by the people of Tripura are in much demand in the country. The coin shaped necklace worn by the womenfolk is very much in demand.